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TO: civilsocietyunit@ohchr.org 
CC: Christina.saunders@ohchr.org 



UNIVERSAL PERIODIC REVIEW on PapUO New Guinea 
BOUGAINVILLE CIVIL SOCIETY STAKEHOLDER REPORT TO OHCHR 



1. Members of the Bougainville Human Rights Committee with Civil Society Bougainvilleans 
who attended Human Rights Training in HR Monitoring, Documenting and Reporting with OHRCHR 
contributed to this report. 

2. The objectives and functions of the Bougainville Human Rights Committee: 

(A) Component 1: Donor study and identification for the purpose of seeking funds for Human Rights 

activities 

(BJ Component 2: Functioning as a think tank/forum (peer review) 

(C) Component 3: Coordination 

(D) Component 4: To provide advice on the substantive quality programming of human rights 
initiatives with the aim of improving their quality 

(E) Component 5: Functioning in an advisory role on the development of government policy on 
Human Rights 

3. This committee has three Sub Regional Committees (North, Central and South 
Bougainville). Formed in December 2008, we are a representative body with flexible membership 
based on criteria: The organisation or individual has a focus on Human Rights issues within their 
organisation or community group, AND/OR provides education or promotes issues in relation to 
Human Rights throughout the community and Bougainville AND/OR has an interest or specialisation 
in Human Rights issues. 

4. Currently the committees comprise representatives from the following: 

Civil society (Churches, Bougainville Women's Federation & organisations e.g. Hako Women's 

Collective, Bougainville Business Association, Leitana Development Agency & Field work 

counsellors and Nazareth Rehabilitation Centre), 

Government agencies (Magisterial, Police Service, Public Solicitors office, ABG officers from 

Community Development, Health, Education, Law & Justice, Administration) 

NGOs (Red Cross, Caritas) 

UN Bougainvillean representatives (UN Women, UNICEF, UNDP) 

Media (Radio Bougainville and New Dawn FM) 

SUMMARY 

5. The report includes input from many civil society sources and consultation with 
government Ministers, Members, CEO officers, employees of the administration and other partner 
agencies but it is not a government report. We write our concerns and recommendations of POST 
CONFLICT Human Rights issues requiring UNHCR notice to OHCHR and our Papua New Guinea and 
Autonomous Bougainville Governments. 

6. With regard to Universal Declaration of HUMAN RIGHTS-all 30 Articles, the following 
recommendations are made in the hope that Bougainvilleans and the societies of Bougainville and 
Papua New Guinea as a whole will find healing from the suffering of war and conflict. 

7. Although Human Rights in Bougainville has improved significantly, HUGE GAPS remain to 
be addressed since the Report of the Special Rapporteur on extrajudicial, summary or arbitrary 
executions, Mr. Bacre Waly N'Diaye, submitted pursuant to Commission resolution 1995/66 his 
report on his mission to Papua New Guinea island of Bougainville from 23-28 th October 1995, there 
remain outstanding and critical actions to take in addressing Article 3 of the Human Rights Charter: 
Everyone has the right to life, liberty and security of person and Article 13: Everyone has the right 



to freedom of movement and residence within the borders of each state, Refer E/ 

CN.4/1996/4/Add. 

With regard to this comprehensive report, the relevant issues that remain and require immediate 

attention for implementation of the Recommendations that were made after assessing compliance 

with: 

8. Page 13 C, Freedom of Movement , Care Centres no longer operate but thousands of families 

are not able to return home and be re settled. Some families have been through trauma counselling 
and rehabilitation but they are very few. Others are overcrowding relatives in urban homes, placing 
great strain on families. Others are squatting along highways, seacoasts, Buka Passage and inside 
abandoned plantations or on traditional land belonging to other clans. There is no future for the 
children of such families until their living conditions are secure. If this issue is not addressed, future 
violence could break out where frustrations and conflict arise over land tenure and land use. 

Page 13 D. The right to Education - institutional capacity remains inadequate although 
underway. In servicing of teachers and improved quality of performance is required for 'outcomes 
based curriculum' to deliver better performances as Bougainville is the lowest in PNG. 

Page 13 E. The right to Health- institutional capacity is improving but access to medical 
attention remains a challenge for most rural communities and there is continual shortage of medical 
supplies. Maternal and infant mortality deaths are very high; there is no birth or death registry or 
database for any accountability of the right to life in the Autonomous Region of Bougainville. Health 
centres keep individual statistics but many people die in villages without ever reporting to a health 
centre so there is no way to determine even 'natural' causes of death. Many sorcery based tortures 
and killings claim, in ignorance, they are justified for unexplained deaths. 

Page 13 F. The Administration of lustice - Buka District Court is working well and District 
Courts are now opening in Arawa and Buin but the Village Court System is overworked with cases 
far beyond its powers to deal with. Village Court Magistrates are paid K2 per week (less than one 
US$). Aggrieved parties continue to lack knowledge of their rights and victims continue to 
experience hardship. 

Pp 14, 15 VII AMNESTY granted to PNGDF and BRA 'who had surrendered' applies only to 
human rights offences committed between 1 st October 1988 and up untill st July 1995. All other 
offences should e prosecuted or a Transitional Justice Mechanism be created to address all other 
offences. 

Page 16 VIII A Peace and Conflict Resolution (d) it has been reported that all parties are in 
possession of large quantities of arms and (e) the absence of a Human Rights Commission and B 
Remedies under the Judicial System, Paragraph 72: are ALL OUTSTANDING, (a) Lack of resources 
for the judiciary; (b) no investigation of violations and atrocities; (c) no investigations of executions 
especially of civilian complaints for atrocities committed by Defence Force personnel; (d) no 
coronary inquests for numerous deaths; (e) inadequate legal programs although some juvenile 
justice and awareness on new PNG 'Lukautim Pikinini Act' laws are underway major gaps exist to 
protect women from domestic violence and young girls from courtship related violence; (f) (g) and 
(h) The NEC and the Ombudsman Commission have failed to review the excesses of the PNGDF and 
bring some form of Truth and Reconciliation or reparation back to the civilian victims , this includes 
massacres such as committed at Malabita (28/11/96) and Makakuru (l/12/96)of which we have 
photographic evidence and the thousands of women raped and babies born of rape over a decade of 
war. 

Page 17 IX Particular Concerns: Paragraph 73: Citizens remain affected by the lack of truth 
and reconciliation with PNGDF over their Helicopter dumping of bodies at Buin, Arawa etc. 

Page 17 Paragraph 74: HR violations continue post conflict in unreached 'No Go Zones'. By 
Bougainville 'warlords' who have refused to join the Peace Process. 

Page 17 Paragraph 76: Unresolved issues of Truth and Reconciliation arising from the 
excesses of the PNGDF in having abused Human Rights under the 'State of Emergency powers' make 
it difficult for many civil society Bougainville communities to trust Papua New Guinea Government 
and this is slowing down the Rehabilitation and Reconstruction of Bougainville. 

Page 17 Paragraph 77: Easy access to arms continues to be detrimental to maintaining 
peace and remains a grave human security threat in Bougainville today 

Page 17 Paragraph 78: Mining Issue is relevant as ABG and PNG have re-entered talks about 
reopening the RTZ /BCL Panguna mine. Regarding the profits from mining operations of BCL 'is an 
issue to be negotiated and settled by the parties concerned'. PNG 'remains charged with the duty to 
safeguard the human rights of all the people of PNG in all circumstances. 



Page 18 Paragraph 79: recognition of women of Bougainville's unique position in 
traditional life and their desire for peace - PNG urged to be supportive in all their initiatives. PNG 
and Bougainville women are calling for gender sensitive legislation and for equal representation of 
women at all levels of governance. Laws do not empower women enough in PNG and ABG. 

Page 18 Paragraph 81: Circuit Court is periodic and lack of access for aggrieved 
Bougainvilleans to obtain redress for violations of HR committed against them. National Court 
remains inadequate with bi-annual circuits. 

9. Special Rapporteur on extrajudicial, summary or arbitrary executions, Mr. Bacre Waly 
N'Diaye made recommendations under A, B and C. The following issues are relevant today 

A. The peace and reconciliation process 

Par. 85 Respect for human rights and humanitarian law compliance and advocacy 
challenges are now post-conflict since the report was written. Ramifications of the incomplete 
Weapons Disposal program in the Bougainville Peace Process have serious consequences to 
ongoing security in Bougainville and even to PNG mainland with a developing gun trade. 
-Unaddressed needs for peace building strategies of humanitarian laws at grassroots level have 
created an aftermath on war-affected families and Gender Based Violence is prevalent. 
-Ongoing trauma and a new cycle of violent behaviour from lack of rehabilitating violent 
perpetrators and addressing human rights abuses affects victims in many communities. 

Par. 89 Reconciliation process has become commercialised and politicised for gain and for 
fear of offending perpetrators. Forms of 'truth telling' or confession are glossed over with many 
reconciliations omitting 'sensitive' detail. This has railroaded Churches and Judicial input to the 
TRUTH & reconciliation process. ABG government holds a backlog of questionable invoices. 

Par. 91 Fledgling rehabilitation programs require logistic support and serious financial 
investment to cater to the unreached traumatised population. 

Par. 92 Solid progress in provision of services to the civilian population of Bougainville is 
beginning to reach some rural areas in education and health services but illiteracy is still high. 
-Isolated areas and others behind renegade road blockades and in 'no go' conflict zones exclude 
large sections of the population from all basic services and emergency assistance. 
-Inadequate road maintenance throughout Bougainville and sea transportation services to outlying 
islands and atolls provide serious challenges to securing human rights provisions and protection. 
This is critical where sea level rise now threatens their survival. Food gardens are destroyed and 
emergency food supplies are in constant demand. 

B. Education and Training 

10. Par. 95 Impatience of disaffected and disillusioned youth who cannot proceed beyond 
grades 6 & 8 formal education is beginning to threaten human security in village communities. 
Women's civil society organisations are attempting to build resource centres to offer skills training 
and technical courses but they require financial and logistic support and recognition to become 
providers. Drug and alcohol abuse is affecting many youth who now require attention to mental 
health care and intervention education programs. 

Par. 96 Bougainville Police Services (BPS) and Community Auxiliary (part time CAPS) are 
unarmed and untrained to respond to armed violent incidents; ex combatants and recruited youth 
of a new gun culture act with impunity. Police investigation skills are seriously inadequate; 90% of 
investigated cases go back from Prosecution to the Police for remedial action before the Prosecution 
will return to court with the case. By this time many exceed the 3-month time limit and are dropped. 
Perception in Bougainville is that justice is too far out of reach and many serious cases are heard 
illegally at village court level, or gangs take the law into their own hands. 

C. The Administration of Justice 

11. Par 98 The Rapporteur recommended that ALL those involved in violations of human rights 
must be brought to trial after proper investigations.. Bougainville civil society would ask that this 
happen as part of a Transitional Justice approach that will identify abuses and crimes. 

Par 100 Bougainville is still waiting to see a PNG Human Rights Commission 
Par 101, 102, 103, 104 Bougainville Society supports the request of the Rapporteur for a 
Truth and Justice Commission and we ask that it is included in the Transitional Justice and 
Reconciliation process that will adequately provide compensation for victims and especially for 
humanitarian aid to those who carry physical and mental disability. We continue to ask, as the 
Rapporteur asked, for the necessary mandate and adequate funding to be given. We ask for 
transparency and public reporting, so that all of Bougainville can be rehabilitated and restored in 
the process. 



RECOMMENDATIONS 

12. Recommendation 1 

For ABG to receive International support and intervention / advice / options for the 
Autonomous Bougainville Government to bring Peace Talks to South Bougainville - 
specifically to all stakeholders of the ongoing conflict in Konnou Region. 

In pursuance of Article 3: the Autonomous Bougainville Government Minister for Women, Hon Rose 
Pihei has provided the Bougainville Executive Council with an Information Paper on UNSCR 1325 
Implementation and Women's Participation in Peace Processes. 

The Tobago Community School and the Tobago Health Centre are closed due to ongoing conflict. All 
areas in the sensitive and volatile Konnou region with a population of estimate 12,000 have been 
reached to negotiate peace meetings except Mogoroi (an estimated 150-200 people remain beyond 
any government influence). Some access to a few women in the 'No Go Zone' has been possible and 
they are talking to the BWF women's network linked to Hon Rose Pihei, Minister for Women in the 
Autonomous Bougainville Government. A warlord named Damien Koike from the Nakatu Area 
Council is controlling this last pocket of resistance outside any Government control. The Minister for 
Women is planning a strategic action workshop over the next couple of months to work with 
stakeholders in the area. This would involve civil leaders and women, police, administration, peace 
builders, leaders of the factions, Council of Elder Chairmen, youth, churches, and civil society from 
both the Government Zone and the No Go Zone. This initiate should be supported in the strongest 
possible way by ABG, PNG and the United Nations. Bougainville people still want to use peaceful 
means but we require expertise in the form of official recognition and monitoring when required for 
formal commitments and the possible assistance of advice and logistic support. Rehabilitation 
follow up is particularly requiring funding and support for the Bougainville providers such as the 
Nazareth Rehabilitation Centre. 

13. Recommendation 2 

Civil Society in Bougainville requests United Nations and Regional Peace Keeping Monitors to 
assist Autonomous Bougainville Government and the Department of Veteran Affairs to 
complete the Weapons Disposal Program throughout Bougainville. 

There is an incomplete list with the ABG identifying where the guns are and with who and the type 
of weapons held. Knowing where they are does not guarantee disarmament as being automatic 
with the Peace Process. There are many and varied reasons why guns continue to be prevalent in 
the community. This should not stop us however from our determination to build a safe, secure and 
just society with full respect for the Human Rights Charter especially Articles 3, 5 and 7 with regard 
to life, liberty, human security of everyone without being subjected to torture, cruel, inhuman or 
degrading treatment, being equal before the law and entitled to equal protection. The reappearance 
of United Nations and Peace Monitors to support our Governments to continue the weapons 
disposal program could strengthen hope and trust in BOTH ABG and PNG Governments who would 
be seen as taking seriously the progress towards honouring of agreements. An international 
presence will invigorate the process and strengthen compliance with across all parties. 

14. Recommendation 3 

Request for United Nations Assistance for Bougainville and Papua New Guinea to compile 
Data Base records of Human Rights Abuses with the urgent need to address the needs of 
survivors, victims and for Good Governance Planning in the post conflict period. 

To date there is NO CLEAR or COMPREHENSIVE knowledge of the SCALE of the PNG / 
BOUGAINVILLE conflict. Estimations of the Scale of the conflict differ because they are all based on 
educated guesswork. All planning, delivery of services (sadly inadequate) and reconciliation efforts 
require sound factual data to ensure good governance. Previously, people have been afraid to face 
and address the abuses for fear of re escalation of the conflict. This approach is now backfiring in 
alarming ways. There is a resurgence of Human Rights Abuses - in many forms as explained in the 
background on Recommendation 2, but also new forms of 'payback', torture and sorcery killings are 
emerging as people decide to take the law into their own hands. 



15. Specifically, the ABG Department of Planning would require expert assistance with the 

setting up of appropriate research systems and database programs for identifying and recording: 

List of the Dead and the Number of Deaths from Bougainville War from the outbreak of hostilities 

inl988 up to the 1998 Ceasefire and then those who have died from conflict related causes up to the 

present day. 

List of deaths from Blockade and denial of Health Services during the decade of conflict and 

resultant orphans, widows, widowers and enforced marriage separations with resultant broken 

families who are struggling and require assistance / community support. 

List of Rape victims and babies born of rape from the conflict up to the present time (Traumatised 

men continue to rape women with impunity) 

Victims of Torture and subsequent ongoing disability. 

Displaced Persons in current times. Some of these people have never returned home through fear of 

rejection for past crimes. These need to be addressed. Others continue to be subjected to violent 

dispersal threats (e.g. in the Konnou area of Piliraro Village) where the Peace Process has not yet 

had effect on local communities. 

List of Destruction of Property, in particular the loss of Government Infrastructure, Public and 

Community Buildings and assets that have crippled the attempts at reconstruction and service 

delivery. Included in these losses are education and health facilities, libraries and civic buildings, 

business houses and private homes. 

16 Recommendation 4 

Request for United Nations Assistance for Bougainville to compile Data Base records of all 
Reconciliations (formal and informal, official government planned and community based) - 
with the urgent need to identify the success or otherwise of these ceremonies and to assist 
the ABG Division of Peace and Reconciliation in addressing the needs of survivors and 
victims who have yet to experience reconciliation. 

Capacity in human resources training of Bougainvillean staff and technical expertise of database 
programs are required to provide institution capacity for the successful and sustainable operation 
of the task. 

17 A database is urgently required so all Reconciliations are acknowledged and a full history of 
areas covered in the Peace Process can be available for the public record. Bougainville people, 
Government and PNG Civil Society and NGO Agencies, Aid Worker Volunteers etc. do not know the 
status of areas they travel to networks with or plan for. Ignorance and uncertainty of personal 
security causes stalemate and progress. People are becoming war weary and tired of new people 
coming into their areas and wanting to start the process all over again. Women's organisations are 
becoming particularly tired of being ordered to 'get your act together and reconcile' when they 
comprehensively did this at a UNDP sponsored Peace and Reconciliation Workshop in November 
2008. We have since then reached out to all parts of Bougainville and formed Bougainville Women's 
Federation at Sub Regional, District and COE levels. It is counter-productive to lack access to 
reconciliation information. 

18 With access to a database, stakeholders can then evaluate and address specific people, 
incidents, areas and issues they may have overlooked. There may also be the necessity to work to 
heal breaches or to revisit cases where blanket agreements did not assist the recovery of loved ones 
from exile or to locate burial sites, exhume bodies and restore them to loved ones for proper burial. 
There are cases where forensic expertise will be required in this process. Access to information on 
reconciliations also affects: 

Movement of people returning home after the war who have not been present at the time of 

reconciliations, 

Students returning to Bougainville from overseas and PNG post war and post peace process, 

Maturity of children and youth into adulthood with a lack of awareness of previous agreements by 

their elders 

Deceased leaders who have only been able to leave their oral accounts of Reconciliations behind to 

other leaders and a small proportion of the population (lack of transport often means that many 

people cannot actually attend ceremonies) 

Displaced individuals who return home from being refugees in other parts of Bougainville, PNG or 

the Solomon Islands. 



19. Recommendation 5 

Request for United Nations assistance to Papua New Guinea and the Autonomous 
Bougainville Government in establishing a TRANSITIONAL JUSTICE MECHANISM that will 
address and redress the war crimes that were committed against the people of Bougainville 
and Papua New Guinea. 

Human Rights Defenders in Bougainville believe in the ability of the Bougainville people in 
partnership with their Autonomous Bougainville Government to discern and create a home grown 
model for Truth and Reconciliation IF given expert assistance of appropriate authorities who have 
successfully participated in similar exercises in other post conflict situations. UNHCR are asked to 
provide other UN models and the Rwandan model of a Truth and Reconciliation process that could 
help to inform PNG and ABG governments and civil society of the elements involved in the design of 
a 'home grown' form of a Truth and Reconciliation process. Bougainville has traditional customs 
that could well serve the purpose and contribute to establishing rule of law and justice for human 
security in Bougainville. Such a process would need to be handled with caring, restorative methods 
that are culturally sensitive and flexible to integrate with traditional customs. There would need to 
be a trauma counselling and rehabilitation component to the process ready to work with the very 
first cases onwards. 

20. Human Security remains a challenge in Bougainville and people are concerned when 
organised gangs e.g., rapists and warlords like Damien Koike in Konnou and Paul Ihrah in Bana and 
cultist leaders e.g. Noah Musingku in Siwaii continue to act with impunity. Known perpetrators are 
seen to be walking around freely without having faced any form of Transitional Justice or making 
any reparation for massacres, murder and executions, torture, rape, and all manner of abuse. Many 
of these people surrendered weapons to Reconciliation Ceremonies but they secretly retained their 
more highly valued guns. 

21. The Amnesty period that was agreed to between the Central PNG government and the later 
assassinated Premier of Bougainville, Mr Theodore Miriung, was made in a joint agreement 'based 
on national interest' and extended from the 1 st October 1988 to 1 st July 1995. Any and every crime 
after that date should be legally prosecuted. There has been no such process and no one is prepared 
to begin the discussion of how and where and who and when this should occur. For years now, 
civilians all over Bougainville are quietly asking WHY nothing is being done. They are asking about 
the amnesty and are ignorant of the dates and if their own cases fall within the period or if they can 
still have opportunity to have their story told and the state acknowledge their suffering, or the price 
they have paid in loss and as a consequence of war, seek to reconcile and receive reparation from 
perpetrators, have war criminals identified and made to take responsibility for what they did or face 
justice, etc. 

22. Recommendation 6 

Recommend assistance from UN WOMEN to assist ABG and the Minister for Women in 
promoting gender sensitive legislation in the Autonomous Bougainville Government 
incorporating UNSCR 1325. 

Laws in ABG and PNG do not empower women enough in leadership systems. In the post-conflict 
Bougainville case, there is no specific provision for family and sexual violence prevention. UNSCR 
1325 addresses prevention, participation, protection and rebuilding. There is nothing in place to 
cater for the power dynamics that operate in a male dominated conflict affected region. There are 
layers of these power dynamics that make it very hard for women to break through. Town and 
Business, drinking and receptions are male dominated domains in a post-colonial Bougainville 
outpost. Women are unaware of or have limited access to decision-making on development and 
funding, governance decisions for implementation and awarding of contracts. 

There are limitations on the visibility of women to any observer of Bougainville Governance and 
administration. Women peacemakers involved during the international period of Truce and Peace 
Monitoring were later excluded once the international community departed. Bougainville women 
have since been exposed to UNIFEM documentation of Burundi and Rwanda and Liberian women, 



government legislation that ensures 30% and 50% women's participation in all levels of governance 
and they wonder why this should not be the case in Bougainville. 



23. Recommendation 7 

Request Expertise from United Nations or referred agencies who can provide FORENSIC 
TEAMS to assist the people in recovering bodies from mass graves and known sites where 
bodies have been dumped during the Bougainville Conflict. 

Many Bougainville people continue to search out the location of missing relatives with a view to 
reclaiming their bones and returning them to the clan for proper burial. Several reconciliations have 
brought together perpetrators and victims families and they have assisted in the recovery of such 
victims when the identity of the victim is known. There are however, several mass graves sites and 
individual sites where bodies have been recovered but there is no known identity to assist restoring 
the bodies to their correct families. The 'Bel Isi' Park in Central Buka Town is one such place. There 
is a coconut tree planted to mark the site of the mass grave. A short distance up the road another 
body was recovered while digging a house foundation post - at the site of the PNGDF former 
interrogation tent site. Protests have been held in 2010 to stop government attempts to develop Bel 
Isi Park. No development can continue in these central town sites unless the situation is addressed. 
Another site where mass graves and individual graves are marked but there is no identification as 
to who might be buried in each on is on the Zoon Islands offshore to Koromira. This collection of 
three islands had an army camp and was a known site for PNGDF interrogation of people fishing 
offshore and suspected as blockade-runners. There are several graves and known names of missing 
persons but no one is confident to exhume the bodies without assistance in correct procedures and 
the way to attempt identifying by sex, age, physical characteristics that only forensic experts can 
attest. 

METHODOLOGY 

24. In the writing of this Bougainville Civil Society Report, the following methods have been 
used to gather information and to analyse this so that recommendations could be made. The specific 
recommendations as a result of this process affect the Human Rights of Bougainvilleans from the 
perspective of Human Rights Defenders living in Bougainville today and in the interests of Civil 
Society whether or not they agree entirely with all information or opinions expressed. 

• Human Rights Committee and Human Rights Defender consultative meetings at 
Chabai ' Human Rights Campaign and the way forward in 2011' 26 th -29 th January 2011 
(North, Central & South Committees with overall objective to consolidate peace and human 
security 

• Human Rights Defender session 'Applying tools to national context' workshop Friday 
11 th February 2011, at Tsiroge Conference Centre during Training Course on Human Rights 
Monitoring, Documenting and Reporting Skills 

• HRCNRB (Human Rights Committee Northern Region of Bougainville) meetings: 23 rd 
February 2011 appoint Marilyn Taleo Havini to write the report, identify stakeholders to 
interview and consult and develop draft UPR Civil Society report, 

-11 th March 2011, edit draft UPR report, and 

-16 th March 2011 finalise submission of UPR Civil Society report. 

• Observation: 

Personal eye witness accounts by Human Rights Defender groups and discussions based on 
eyewitness observations and identification of photo documentation in trust, Moses and 
Marilyn Taleo Havini of massacre images from 1996-Photographs of two Siwaii Massacres 
by PNGDF and Resistance Forces: Malabita Massacre (November 28, 1996) and Mokokuru 
Massacre (4-5. 30am 1 st December 1996) 

• Interviews: 

-Aloysius Laukai, Radio Journalist New Dawn FM, 11 th February 2011 concerning the 

Konnou conflict in Siwaii, South Bougainville 

-Hona Holan, President Bougainville Women's Federation, Northern Region 

-Agnes Titus, UN Women, Bougainville Office UNDP 

-Janice Lewis, NZ Research student of Bougainville Police Service and New Zealand CAPS 

Community Auxiliary police Service project 



- Mr Anthony Agyenta, Chief technical Advisor UNDP, Buka Office. 
Consultative meetings with Government Officials: 

-Minister for Women, Autonomous Bougainville Government, Hon Rose Pihei MHR Konnou 

Constituency 

-CEO for ABG Department of Veteran Affairs, Mr Jobson Misang 

-CEO ABG Community Development, Mrs Mana Kakarouts 

-1 st Secretary, ABG Ministry of Peace and Reconciliation, Mr Dennis Kuiai 

-Hon Lawrence Wakai MHR, ABG member for Bolave Constituency, Bana District 

-Moses Havini, Director Parliamentary Committees, ABG Parliament 

Media reports 

- Bougainville Freedom Movement Media Release No 314 9 th December 1996 ' Bougainville 
Massacre Details' 

- Bougainville Freedom Movement Media Release 12 th December 1996 'PNG Army murders 
Bougainville civilians in Church' 

- Newspaper clippings of the Australian Sydney Morning Herald 16 th December 1996 (Page 
1 'Photo proof of PNG mortar raid, say Bougainville rebels' and Page 9 ' Bougainville 
massacre: the bloody aftermath' ) 

- At Ease! (Australian Defence Force alternative newspaper) November -December 1992 
issue Pages 6 and 8, ' RAAF's Lead Role in Gunships Massacre' subtitled, Australia's Secret 
War on Bougainville'. 

- Post Courier February 2011 'Sisito: do not rush mine reopening, ' ' Rebel hits out against 
mine talks'. 

Background research of Government and expert analysts reports prepared for 
Government on the Bougainville situation 
- Bougainville Peace Audit 
-Bougainville Peace Building Report 

-Reconciliation and Architectures of Commitment, Sequencing Peace in Bougainville 
-Community Views on Restoration and Development in Bougainville, Results of the ABG 
Public Forums on Restoration and Development April- August 2009 

-Australian Senate Hansard, 19 th June 1996, Page 1869 AD)OURNMENT Bougainville, 
presentation of Volume 2 'A Compilation of Human Rights Abuses Against the People of 
Bougainville' to the Parliament. 

Research of Human Rights Covenants, Treaties, Reports and Documents and URP 
information 

-The International Bill of Human Rights: Universal Declaration of Human Rights, and the 
five Treaty's ratified by Papua New Guinea 

ICESRC -International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, 
ICCPR -International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights 

CEDAW - Convention on Elimination of all forms of discrimination against women 
CRC - Convention on the Rights of the Child 
CERD - Convention on Elimination of Racial Discrimination 

-Report of the Special Rapporteur on extrajudicial, summary or arbitrary executions, Mr 
Bacre Waly N'diaye, submitted pursuant to Commission resolution 1995/66 'Report by the 
Special Rapporteur on his mission to Papua New Guinea island of Bougainville from 23to 
28 th October 1995' to the Economic and Social Council Commission on Human Rights, Fifty- 
second session, Item 10 of the provisional agenda E/CN.4/1996/4/Add.2 
-OHCRC Working with the United Nations Human Rights Programme, 
A Handbook for Civil Society, NY and Geneva 2008 

Reference to current Civil Society and Non Government Agency reports 
-UNDP Bougainville Family Health and Safety Study (researcher Dr. Richard Eaves, State, 
Society and Governance in Melanesia Program, College of Asia and the Pacific, Australian 
National University and local Bougainvilleans). February 2011 

-Hako Women's Collective (HWC) Background Information paper to UNDP on Gender: 
'Nation Building Program' PROPOSAL for addressing gender violence through Parenting 
Project and Conflict Resolution Workshops, M Havini and H. Holan, June 3 rd 2010 

- HWC list of 'Guns in Hako' 

-A Compilation of Human Rights Abuses Against the People of Bougainville 1989-1995, 
Marilyn Taleo Havini, Pub by Bougainville Freedom Movement April 1995 



-A Compilations of Human Rights Abuses Against the People of Bougainville 1989-1996 
Volume 2, by Marilyn Taleo Havini, Bougainville Interim Government 1996 
-Report on UN Women consultation in Bougainville, International Women's Day 9/3/11 

BACKGROUND and CONTEXT 

25. Geography: Bougainville is the biggest of the seven islands of the Solomon Island 
Archipelago. It is about 990 Kms long and 96 Km wide at its narrowest part. Rich in volcanic soil 
surrounded by alluvial plains with the outlying islands raised from the coral reef it has two 
extended mountain ranges running the length of the island with volcanoes in North Central and 
South Bougainville rising 9-10,000' above sea level isolating east and west coasts of population. The 
Autonomous Region of Bougainville is made up of the main island of Bougainville, Buka Island (65 x 
32kms) and the Atolls of Nissan, Carterets (Tulun), Nuguria (Fead) Mortlock (Takuu) and Tasman 
Islands (Nukumanu), 150-200 NE of Buka Island. The people are of Melanesian stock. Ethnically, 
socially and culturally related to their relatives in the Solomon Islands. Bougainville is on the 
perimeter of Papua New Guinea approximately 1,000 kilometres from the capital of Port Moresby. 
Bougainville is not part of the landmass of PNG but is separated by 55 kilometres of ocean from the 
nearest PNG town of Rabaul, East New Britain Province. 4% south of the Equator, Bougainville is 
covered in dense tropical jungle, impenetrable in places. And the total land area of the two main 
islands is 900, 000 square hectares. The total area suitable for garden and cash cropping is 332, 000 
square hectares. 

26. History: The first recorded European contact was with French explorer Captain Louis de 
Bougainville in 1768. It remained outside European influence until 1884 when Germany took an 
interest in its mineral resources and other raw materials for their motherland. It recruited labour 
gangs to work the New Guinea Island plantations. It has been a part of Papua New Guinea since the 
imperial powers of Germany and Britain formally annexed Bougainville in 1886. Bougainvilleans 
have always objected to being treated as mere 'chattels' without due regard to their 'sovereignty' 
since this first political 'horse-trading'. After the outbreak of WWI German New Guinea surrendered 
to troops under Australian command in 1914. Australia administered the colony until 1921 when it 
was proclaimed a ward of the new League of Nations, under mandate to Australia. Bougainvilleans 
objected even under Australian colonisation and briefly under Japanese rule, from 1942-1945 at the 
end of WWII. In 1947 Bougainville became a United Nations Trust Territory, once more 
administered by Australia. In 1975 at granting of Independence to PNG, Bougainville objected to 
losing its promised statehood as an autonomous District with a 'secession movement' but later 
accepted Provincial status within PNG after peace talks in May 1976. Contentious issues over land 
and destruction to the environment by the mining operations of BCL and the profits of the largest 
copper mine in the southern hemisphere owned by RTZ going to Papua New Guinea, rather than to 
the landowners, re escalated the political issues of independence in 1988. In 1989 this became an 
armed struggle between PNG and Bougainville (North Solomons Province) until 1998 negotiations 
secured at Lincoln a Political agreement and led to a subsequent Cease-Fire on April 30 th 1998. 
Regional Truce and Peace Monitoring teams were deployed in December 1997 and together with 
the United Nations oversaw the Peace Process, which has taken another 7 years until the eventual 
granting of an Autonomous Region for Bougainville. Elections of the Autonomous Bougainville 
Government were held in 2005 with the guarantee of a Referendum on the question of 
Independence in 10-15 years time. 



In response to Human Rights defenders' analysis and consultations made of the current 

Human Rights situation in Bougainville, the following concerns are explained with regard to 

each of the 7 Recommendations made in this report: 

27. Background and context to RECOMMENDATION 1: Security in South Bougainville 

Konnou in South Bougainville inland area, is the largest Constituency in Bougainville, Comprising 
three Councils Of Elders; Upper Konnou COE (TOBAGO area), Konnou Coastal COE (MUGUAI) and 
UISAII COE (extending from Lehu to the border of Koromira in Central Bougainville with ORIA as 
the administrative centre). Konnou population (estimated at 12, 000) is isolated by rugged 
mountainous jungle and cut off from education and any basic services. ABG Minister for Women is 
the Women's Regional Member for South Bougainville, Konnou constituency. Her family is divided 
by the conflict with perpetrators and victims on each side. She is setting up a literacy program for 



10 



the illiterate of the crisis. Schools last operated in the conflict zones pre crisis in 1988. Minister Pihei 
is also looking at ways to upgrade year 10 and 12 school leavers so they can qualify for training and 
employment opportunities for economic empowerment. Hon Pihei is a very brave leader who has 
worked consistently to reach into all areas of the Konnou conflict in South Bougainville. During a 
consultative meeting with her on 7 th March 2011, she advised that an approach through the 
Bougainville Women's Federation (BWF) network is working. She requires assistance to strengthen 
the capacity of peace builders and leadership of the BWF. The BWF is being formed across 
Bougainville 2009-2011. Women are being trained by a UNDP funded program to identify critical 
issues for development opportunities as they become available in the villages for those who choose 
PEACE. The women are risking their lives in many cases and some efforts have been seriously 
threatened. They have been held at gunpoint and ambushed en route to a Peace Fair, but they were 
not the intended targets. The vehicle that transported them was stolen under fire. 

28. Konnou remains a divided community since the Bougainville conflict (1988-1998). The 
compilations of Human Rights Abuses record many of the executions and conflict related deaths 
originate in this area of Bougainville. The opposing forces are WILMO and an offshoot of the 
Me'ekamui pro independence fighters. Under the leadership of Damien Koike, this group of armed 
fighters decided not to enter the Peace Process at the time of formal negotiations between 
Bougainville and Papua New Guinea. People are dying due to family disputes. The latest killing at 
Mongai (as this is written in March 2011) was where the post conflict fights erupted in 2006. The 
refugees who went to Mongai need a resettlement program. Many such families are from Piliraro, 
Tobago (and others in Buin and Arawa Towns where many have fled as internally displaced 
refugees). 

29. Peace has not been established in areas of known atrocities such as places where bodies 
were dumped from helicopters. The PNGDF used an ex Bougainville Pilot to dump bodies off Buin 
and Kieta coasts. Other such dumping of bodies was made further north off East and West Coasts of 
Bougainville. Mass graves exist that alienate land from normal use until such time as these bodies 
are reclaimed, truth and reconciliation and follow up trauma counselling and rehabilitation takes 
place. In general, the population is being civil to each other but it is a waiting game. ..until the 
undercurrents of intensive dislike explode due to lack of any Transitional Justice mechanism to face 
the truth and deal with it through a reparation and reconciliation process. One such attempt carried 
some weight last year in the December 2010 ABG Games. The theme was 'Strengthen Peace and 
Unity through Sports'. Opportunity was given for Reconciliations to take place prior to the Official 
Opening. Participators and Spectators came together in thousands to shake hands, and even a group 
of 200 women from Konnou who came to cook and cater to their youth reconciled across their 
Government and No Go Zone Divide. These women returned to Konnou with news of the dividends 
of peace and harmony. Through them, and their BWF leaders, inroads are opening for the possibility 
of Peace Talks. They want to plan for another all embracing reconciliation after the outstanding and 
myriad small individual reconciliations have taken place. Women are now appealing for assistance 
to support this back breaking effort of PEACE MAKING and TRUTH & RECONCILIATION 

Interview with Aloysius Laukai 11 th February 2011 

30. Mr A Laukai, a journalist with NEW DAWN FM was a fellow participant at the United Nations 
Training on Human Rights Monitoring, Documenting and Reporting, Marilyn Havini interviewed him. 

There are mission records of family feuds and long term conflict in the Konnou area. Historical 
analysis (C/- Fr. Saris) of on-going infighting over land since ancient times has prevented the 
Bougainville Peace Process from encompassing this remote area of Southern Bougainville. 
Reportedly, family feuding escalated with the Bougainville Conflict and allegiances were drawn on 
family and clan lines. 2011 updated reports of families forced to flee under threat of violent 
dispersal claim that gun buying from Central Bougainville is on the rise. In support of the claims that 
these areas of Bougainville have remained outside the Bougainville Peace Negotiations and 
Agreements, there is undisputed evidence from the entire community, international observer 
mission reports and Media Release information dating back to the conflict e.g. The reported 'killing 
spree' and massacres in 1996 of South Bougainville all came from forces based at the ORIA Care 
Centre. Refer to Media Release No 314 of 9 th December 1996. 
Recent Killings: 

1. Easter 2010 - victim named Korake 

2. Early February 2011 - David Mege -25 year old victim attacked during a game of soccer 



11 



3. 2 years earlier David's small brother aged 16-18 age was killed 

4. 2008 - Jacob Naise, ex-leaders of the Bougainville Resistance was killed 

5. The son of Mege's brother was killed in an ambush after leaving a church service - allegedly shot at 

point blank range. 

6. 2007-08 at Oria, a PNG Highlander who was teaching at Oria was killed 

7. 2008 - Ravana was killed at Oria. His widow, Rose Ravana is working for the Catholic HIV /AIDS 

Centre in Arawa (Central Bougainville) 

8. During an ambush at Buin Airport, indiscriminate fire on women going to market killed one woman 

and wounded another. 

9. Two deaths at the junction at Buin Airport 

10. 2009 Joseph Tekia and son were shot at Piliraro Village 

11. 2010 Another victim killed at Piliraro Village near Tabago. 

31. In February 2010, the whole village population of Piliraro (estimated 10 family groups) was 

forced to evacuate and they are currently living as internally displaced refugees in other parts of 
Bougainville. Most are living with relatives in either Buin Town (South Bougainville) or in Buka 
Town (North Bougainville). Some are living with relatives in safer village areas but defended by 
arms. The Hon Wilfred Komba and ABG Minister, Member of House of Representatives for Konnou 
in Autonomous Bougainville Government, resides at Kubu in Buka, is and is living removed from 
the conflict. Local Chiefs - Francis Mona and Aloysius Laukai are in the process of writing a petition 
to the ABG to intervene and prevent more killings. They claim to have written letters to the 
Government with no response. 



32. Background and context to RECOMMENDATION 2: Weapons Disposal 

One of the three pillars to Bougainville gaining a REFERENDUM on SELF DETERMINATION in 2015 
is the completion of Weapons Disposal. This is clearly unfinished business for the Peace Process. 
Guns are still present in almost every community in Bougainville today. The surrendered guns were 
put in trunks, carried to containers then subsequently destroyed and dumped in the sea by 
helicopters. Although retained weapons are not carried openly in most parts of Bougainville, the 
general community knows or suspects who has guns and some may even know where they are 
stored. 

33. Although combatants handed in large numbers of weapons after the start of the peace 
process in mid-1997 and the signing of a comprehensive political settlement with PNG in August 
2001, caches of weapons still exist in the community. Some ex commanders have been able to use 
the possession of weapons to maintain positions of power and open up in business - even to 
controlling the sale of scrap metal from the closed BCL mine. Combatants aligned with the 
Me'ekamui faction never participated in the peace process and still hold weapons. Other former 
combatants, mainly in South Bougainville, have retained weapons for their own security, since they 
are still involved in unresolved localised conflicts. 

34. Key messages from the Bougainville Community in the April-August 2009 ABG PUBLIC 
FORUMS on Restoration and Development concerning guns were: 

• Insufficient progress has been made on improving peace and security in the past five years - 
communities continue to be exposed to guns and knives, rape and date rape, arson, heavy drinking 
and drugs, domestic violence and prostitution. 

• Ex-combatants are not holding guns, they are being held by gangs (North Bougainville Forum only 
had this analysis). 

• There are a number of groups yet to disarm in Southern Bougainville, peace is fragile, people feel 
insecure and many were of the opinion that 'the rule of law' was not taking hold in South 
Bougainville. 

• The Government should no longer tolerate the existence of the Morgan Junction Roadblock. 

• Carterets Islanders are afraid of resettlement to Bougainville mainland in response to climate 
change and sea level rise, as they fear being 'chased around with guns if we are being sent to the 
mainland for resettlement'. 



12 



35. Breaking news Sunday 6 th March from CEO Division of Veteran Affairs, Mr Jobson Misang, is 
that a new roadblock has been established in South Bougainville at Dawuro (also pronounced 
Laworo) near Boku in Buin. All traffic is being diverted to the East Coast road for travel in and out of 
South Bougainville from Kieta, and Arawa in Central. The roadblock has been erected due to 
renegade commander Paul Ihrah of Sinnai Village in Bana continuing to ambush vehicles at 
gunpoint and confiscating them for his own private army of highly dangerous men. He is armed with 
high-powered weapons and has stolen over 6 vehicles and an assortment of motorbikes. Police 
report that ex-combatants of both sides from Bana and Siwaii are mobilizing for attack. Paul Ihrah is 
an ex BRA who has been disowned by them and he now claims to belong to Me'ekamui but also has 
links with "King" Noah Musingku of U VISTRACT based at Tonu in Siwaii. Police of South 
Bougainville are ready to take a stand against this warlord having been encouraged by success in 
recently capturing another renegade Me'ekamui platoon commander from Momai. He is Patrick 
Louaro and he is in solitary confinement in the Buin police cell. 

36. The prevalence of guns within the Bougainville Community impedes freedom of movement 
and enjoyment of Human Rights as per Articles 12, 13 17 18, 19, 20 and 21. Roadblocks maintained 
by armed 'ex-combatants' continue to deprive many Bougainvillean residents and citizens of all the 
30 articles, specifically Articles 22, 23, 24, 25, 26,27,28, and 29. Weapons retained and sold on by 
former combatants remain a security threat. Several of these men are in business and have 
threatened creditors if they do not pay up according to their demands. Member of the HR 
Committees cannot count the numerous specific examples in North, Central and South Bougainville 
where this practice occurs up to the night before this report is being edited! Holding guns is too 
tempting for these seemingly peaceable businessmen to use as a resort to extract payment. Many 
young men and businessmen have secured arms to protect their business interests even though 
they were formerly not armed combatants. Buka Town and Kokopau Town on each side of Buka 
Passage are like an old fashioned 'cowboy towns of the America's wild west' with occurrences of 
night discharge of firearms without warning by gangs who ride in (loaded on utility trucks and in 
vehicles rather than horses) and demand business houses to open up and give them whatever they 
want. 

37. Police are not attending to reports of firearm discharge incidents because the BPS is 
unarmed and they feel powerless to confront well-known offenders. Also, the police are mainly 
trained in community policing and they are not trained to handle violent confrontations. Any actual 
attempts to prosecute such behaviour usually get dropped after a three-month time limit to 
prosecute. Such cases take months to come to court due to the lack of institutional capacity. 

38. A gun market has developed that is a direct threat to the pillars for Bougainville's 
Referendum to be conducted in 2015. The perception is that guns in-flow from the Solomon Islands 
and out-flow through Bougainville to the New Guinea Islands smuggled with copra and cocoa cargo. 
Air Niugini is also on security alert for the arms trade attempts by air. However there is no such 
security search or control of shipping through Bougainville ports. It is not widely known that an 
attempt to hold the Air Niugini passenger plane in Buka last year in the Christmas week was for the 
purpose of robbing the Bank of the South Pacific (BSP) of the money being delivered for the bank to 
Bougainville. Allegedly, some ex-combatants who also claim the involvement of some police 
personnel planned this intercepted attempt. Their aim was to use the money to buy GUNS. The 
explanation is that the ex-combatants know they have no future and so they have now negotiated 
for Security Contracts with PNG Landowners of the LNG Gas Project. The contract is for 15 of them 
to be employed as mercenaries; 5 x North, 5 x Central and 5 x Southern ex-combatants. 

39. In fact, many such 'Security Firms' are business ventures developed post conflict by ex- 
combatants. Some are providing a real service and have good reputations while others are breeding 
grounds for violence that threatens the general population. Much of the 'cowboy' behaviour can be 
traced back to these groups and some are 'friends' of police. There are confidential reports that ex- 
combatants are regrouping into their old units for more sinister business arrangements. They are 
saying 'If ABG cannot provide for us, we have the qualifications to look for our own future'. They are 
available for hire to disaffected PNG landowner groups who want to rebel against the PNG 
government. If this is really the case, both ABG and PNG face a serious security issue. Weapons 
Disposal MUST therefore be addressed with great wisdom and understanding by all stakeholders 



13 



working together. There may well be a threat to the resurgence of warring factions if the dangers 
are ignored. 

40. Besides the smuggled arms from across the border, WWII abandoned weaponry at 
Torokina continues to be a security threat to Peace. There is still so much buried there and being 
dug up for the gun market. USA Officials visited the site on invitation from PNG in 2010 but the USA 
is treating it as a PNG problem- not a Bougainville problem and so no information is shared with 
ABG over the decisions being made. As yet, there has been no clear decision by either PNG or ABG 
concerning this serious impediment to peace. Many locals from the area have become frustrated 
with the lack of reconstruction progress and now see the guns as their own economic investment. 
The Torokina Community are also asking to be informed if there is any decision to remove the 
weapons, as they are the ones who will suffer. (Periodically they experience explosions and loss of 
life and limb from gardening and land use in the area.) Rumours in February 2011 are that the USA 
Government is giving US$200, 000 to fix the problem but there has been NO official announcement. 
ABG has reportedly been told in an off-handed fashion that 'Weapons Disposal is being taken care 
of. Bougainvillean perception is that PNG has not honoured its commitments in the Peace Process 
by devolving powers to the ABG for Autonomy to enable Bougainville to address the gun disposal 
issue and to work transparently with the ABG and assist Bougainville in the Weapons Disposal 
Program. 

41. Bougainvilleans believe that they fought for a cause and, to give up the weapons that they 
came to rely on must carry some guarantees of self-reliance and the assurance that the agreement 
on Referendum for Independence will be honoured. In preparation of this report we have been 
dismayed to learn that people are beginning to lose trust in ALL governments and so they are 
holding onto their weapons. BRA and Me'ekamui leaders Ishmael Toroama and Chris Uma 
respectively have differences and hold weapons to maintain a balance of power. These factions will 
need serious and transparent diplomacy with international guarantees for them to cooperate with 
the ABG and PNG on disposal. They will also want to be consulted and involved in all decision- 
making regarding the reopening of the Panguna Mine. The guns in Central Bougainville are being 
held as compensation to stop any force or coercion to reopen the mine. 

42. Other reasons not as easy to secure in guarantee for conditions to be met on WEAPONS 
DISPOSAL are those retained by warlords such as Damien Koike in Konnou, Paul Ihrah in Bana who 
fear for their security if they are ever unarmed, Having committed so many abuses, only the gun can 
ensure their continued 'freedom' and personal safety. 

44. Some weapons are retained by people who would be willing to surrender them in exchange 
for good governance and development by the ABG and the opportunity to be personally valued and 
invited to participate meaningfully in the future of Bougainville. Some weapons were purchased or 
won at the cost of a life of a dear friend or relative and these are held onto for emotional reasons 
that need to be acknowledged in the method of surrender and disposal. United Nations recognition 
of the KOKODA Bougainville model could well encourage many other areas of Bougainville to return 
to Peace by Peaceful means and to peaceful ends. It could be used to create a momentum that could 
turn the people from negative and depressive war like choices to positive preparation for clearing 
the land in readiness for the next stage of the Peace Agreement, and place the Peace Process back on 
track. 

45. Enough time has elapsed that ex-combatants could be led to see their contribution in a 
historic sense and they would be prepared to offer their guns (whether held communally or 
individually) towards historic museums and war memorials. Many in the KOKODA (a COE 
comprising Koromira, Koiano and Daantanai areas in Central Bougainville) with ex combatant 
leader Sam Kauona are already paving the way to community programs that review the cost of war 
as too high to continue. They have held memorial ceremonies that heighten the community desire to 
never want to fight and lose loved ones again. PNG Remembrance Day is becoming significant for 
such initiatives. 



46. Background and context to RECOMMENDATION 3: Data Base Compilations for 
Bougainville War and crisis related conditions 



14 



Several Human Rights based agencies have their own records and data, there are known to be 
various lists of Human Rights Abuses and individual accounts to exist from a wide range of sources 
e.g. 'Marilyn's List' Vol 1 and 2. All these source documents are scattered and retained in 
technologically out of date data based programs such as ISIS. Several may not be retrievable unless 
they are collated as a matter of priority. There is no ONE collation point and therefore the citizens of 
Bougainville and Papua New Guinea have NO known way of determining the actual scale of the 
conflict, nor its consequences. Leaders, academics and politicians tend to remain conservative in 
their estimations of the cost to Bougainville and the number of victims, crimes and abuses. This is 
not helpful to the victims who remain totally ignored in their village environments, many of them 
displaced and still suffering disability and trauma. 

47. Even those who are not displaced bear the burden in expanding their own derelict homes 
and assets to provide welfare to their less fortunate relatives. They struggle with overcrowding, 
school fees for adopted orphans and single parent family additions. These conditions compound 
already complex human rights abuse scenarios regarding CRC and the rights to health and 
education. Uncles' sleep with nieces; adultery and serial monogamy with abandoned families strewn 
across Bougainville, rape, abortion, incest, infanticide and all forms of gender based violence 
unknown pre war in Bougainville are now commonplace. 

48. Agencies are now becoming aware of the need to continue Human Rights work in 
Bougainville but they are lacking any statistics or data on which to base any planning and forward 
action. Hence the UNDP is currently conducting a low key 'Bougainville Family Health and Safety 
Study' with training and fieldwork February to March 2011. We commend this initiative and our 
Civil Society organisations are partnering the UNDP teams to care for them in the community and 
assist in identifying people for in-depth interview towards the beginning of a database on gender 
based violence in Bougainville. 

49. The ABG and Bougainville Non Government Organisations also require training in research, 
collection of data methods, recording, monitoring and evaluation processes so that we can build on 
meagre efforts to serve the community empowered by good practice. Minister of Women, Hon. 
Rose Pihei is attempting to utilise grassroots women researchers through the BWF network with 
the aim to collate data at Council of Elder (COE) level. There would then be the need to further 
collate data from COE (Local Level Government) to Sub Regional levels for planning and service 
delivery to distinctly separate needs in North, Central and South Bougainville. The Hako Women's 
Collective has already determined in the north of Buka to do the same. The women are however 
concerned that they must know correct principles of what data can be collected without 
compromising people's right to privacy. They are concerned with issues of confidentially, security of 
storage; basic formats to use and that can be useful and efficiently accessible. We need software 
programs and technical officers to train, maintain and assist Bougainvillean government and non- 
government people and their equipment and systems. 

50. A DATABASE of destruction of property will highlight the needs Bougainville has to replace 
and provide the necessary infrastructure in reconstruction. There is very little infrastructure or 
capacity for Government to address the needs of the people. Private enterprise is leading the 
development and making government pay high rates in rental properties for basic office spaces and 
guesthouse facilities for meetings and workshops. While this arrangement may be valid out of 
short-term necessity, it is devastating in terms of nation building. There are no assets for the future 
and all income is disappearing in rent, leaving the ABG and its administration begging from the PNG 
Government. During the height of the war, so many international offers were made in speeches by 
other nations of coming to assist when Bougainville is ready to rebuild. The public is not aware of 
any government-building program assistance coming from other nations apart from Bougainville's 
GIF Partnership program through AusAid. And NZAID. Bougainville Administration has made a 
temporary refurbishment of the University Campus to build a temporary House of Parliament that 
must be returned to the PNG University. 



51. Background and context to RECOMMENDATION 4: The need for Data Base of 
Reconciliations in Bougainville and re-evaluation of the Reconciliation Process 



15 



Challenges of Reconciliation process require acknowledgement and redesigning : Many successful 
Reconciliation Ceremonies have been held throughout Bougainville and some have been formal, 
official and large-scale affairs to cater to entire communities or COEs whilst others have been 
personal, specific and inter-clan related and personally funded. All Reconciliation Ceremonies have 
involved traditional customs of Peace Making and very often include symbolic breaking of bows and 
arrows, burial of or placement of sacred symbols such as a stone or a marker for the site where the 
hand shaking and chewing of buai (Betel Nut) has taken place. Almost all involve the killing of pigs 
and traditional exchange of feast prepared garden and store bought food. Many include the 
surrender and destruction or containment of weapons. Government and Non Government and UN 
agency assisted and funded Reconciliations have often been inclusive affairs and brought entire 
communities together. These have fulfilled invaluable roles of opening up community access to 
former meeting places, commercial areas, government and church centres, market places and 
Village Assembly venues. They have provided public occasions where large population groups have 
been assured of a return to pre war freedom of movement and freedom of association. However 
they have failed in many instances to address the need for truth telling and justice for deeper 
healing with reparation to the victims on one hand and protection of individuals from insincere 
parties who retain guns secretly on the other. 

52. Churches have led the way in many cases to initiate reconciliations as a means of 

forgiveness and healing to take place. These have definitely helped in establishing an environment 
where most areas of Bougainville away from No Go Zones can move relatively freely without fear. 
However, the approaches taken in reconciliation at the moment do not complement traditional 
approaches and Christian stages of confession before absolution or restoration is attempted. In an 
attempt to hurry up the Reconciliation process, churches are sometimes left leading the way and 
under pressure to go ahead of tradition. The Human Rights Defenders in Bougainville are interested 
to see UN models of TRUTH and RECONCILIATION to re-evaluate other options - in particular the 
Rwandan model which we understand has standardised local traditions and used them to bring the 
parties together for reconciliation and cleansing yet involves local courts and local dispute 
settlement processes but still involves churches to seal and solidify the process. This appears to 
reverse the current process that is causing Bougainville to rethink the need for incorporating truth 
and justice with reconciliation. 

53 This short-cut politically manipulated approach to Reconciliation has also failed to deliver 

on reparation agreements and tangible projects promised. There is no mechanism to ensure 
compliance and as a result, more rights are abused. An example given in consultation with CEO 
Veteran Affairs is of chiefs confiscating bottles of 'homebrew' from youth in exchange for the 
promise of skills training, employment activities and sustainable development. When nothing is 
done, the youth accuse the chiefs 'you took away my livelihood' and they take revenge and destroy 
chiefs' personal property and sorely needed communal property. 

54. Some better-organised communities arranged their own civil society reconciliations 
without any funding from government or agency. These have often been privately arranged, some 
with, and others without government participation and/or Peace Monitor attendance. They have 
been sincere and very genuine, often motivated by/with remorseful perpetrators who, at their own 
cost, recovered bodies they had buried, or invited and assisted the grieving relatives to come and 
claim their lost loved ones. We suspect many such ceremonies are not recorded or acknowledged. 

55. The task of Reconciliation and Reconstruction, of Planning and Service Provision is on an ad 
hoc basis due to lack of any statistics necessary for comprehensive approach to meet the needs of a 
post war and traumatised community. 'Good Governance' attempts are based on guesswork, as 
there is limited information available on the real needs of the people. There is no mechanism 
present to research who and where are the silent suffering victims. The scales of reconciliations 
required to address conflict are actually unknown due to the geography and areas still in relative 
isolation. 'No Go Zone' areas and the lack of written records for everyone outside three regional 
town centres and some functioning District Offices during the war are scant. 

56. Although Bougainvilleans have rightly taken ownership of the Peace Process and have 
maintained Peace and Security by implementation of their motto 'WE OWN THE PEACE', they 
initially deemed the situation as 'too sensitive' to definitively set down the historical data on specific 



16 



suffering and the steps taken to attempt reconciliations. Many failed attempts have been overlooked 
and abandoned in process. Chiefs quietly stop making overtures and the people are left unsure of 
what is happening, whether anyone else should step in and many lack the confidence to pick up 
where others have abandoned the cause. There are hundreds of cases that have not yet achieved 
reconciliation. Members of the Human Rights committees are aware of many of these and have no 
means to intervene except to recommend the time is NOW to bring all stakeholders together with 
international expertise in research, data base collation and evaluation mechanisms for the design of 
and implementation of a way forward. 

57. The Bougainville Administration's list of some of these Reconciliations has become a source 
of embarrassment as many economically desperate stakeholders have swamped the ABG offices 
with invoices for payment of services and participation in these Reconciliation activities. The 
numerous claims for 'services rendered' include requests for payment of accommodation, security, 
catering and mediation. Thus reconciliation is in danger of becoming commercialised and our 
Bougainville Leaders are asking 'why should we be paid to reconcile?' 

...If reconciliation is to come from the heart.. .WHAT IS RECONCILIATION? 

...Is it enough to 'forgive and forget' when there has often been no truth telling or 'confession' before 
the forgiveness and absolution takes place? Is this not contradictory to how the process can work? 
...At the expense of not wanting to 'shame' the perpetrator, for fear of failure to reconcile, the 
abuse/crime(s) from either or both sides are unstated in the ceremony. This leaves the population 
confused as to their rights to pursue justice in individual cases of severe abuse and the victims are 
left suffering with physical disability, loss, no assistance or support for extra burdens and trauma, 
with nowhere to go. 

58. The need for money and competition for the opportunity to earn it by leading the events 
has caused old wounds to resurface thereby prolonging the suffering. It has been noted by 
Bougainville leaders as well that all the money gets distributed to the chiefs and powerful men 
leaving the women totally out of the payment and reparation system, yet it is the women who are 
ordered to cook and feed everyone at these ceremonies; to harvest from their own gardens and 
carry the burden on their own backs. The positive aspect that helps the women to accept such 
gender discrimination philosophically is that at least the men choose to hand in their guns and 
agree to peace and non violence, thereby granting them some form of human security. 

59. The general population is to be commended for their communal restraint and respect for 
the wider needs of the community to forego their own personal needs. Despite the desire for such 
continued restraint, impatience with the lack of justice issues, service delivery, economic and 
employment opportunity is causing vigilante groups, re-formed fighting veterans and 'warlords' to 
rise up in many pockets of Bougainville with 'Sorcery Killings', armed hold ups for vehicles and 
other physical assets as forms of self centred reparation payments. These newly emerging forms of 
'local justice' are carrying out violent, obscene and horrific tortures and executions for imagined 
crimes and payback (which was not a Bougainville custom prior to the recent war). Many are being 
camouflaged as justified towards people accused of sorcery and witchcraft when in fact they have 
died from unknown causes. 

60 Late President Kabui declared 2008 as the YEAR OF RECONCILIATION. The ABG appointed 

a Steering Committee in 2007 and an Office of Reconciliation for the implementation of the 2008 
Reconciliation strategy. Mr Dennis Kuiai, as Research Officer to the Office of the President drafted a 
proposal for a Truth Commission for the ABG. This was presented to the Steering Committee but 
was altered to focus on Reconciliation only, rather than any form of Transitional Justice for fear of 
possible consequences from ex combatants with exposure of crimes and human rights violations. 
The problem is that when justice is not addressed, anyone can choose to perpetrate a crime with 
impunity AND THIS IS HAPPENING THROUGHOUT BOUGAINVILLE. It is now obvious this process is 
falling short and Bougainville needs some form of TRANSITIONAL JUSTICE to address the culture of 
war and the cycle of violence. 

61. Background and context to RECOMMENDATION 5: Transitional Justice for 
Bougainville 

The Bougainville 'Crisis' covered the entire population of Bougainville and the Papua New Guinea 
Police and Defence Forces and their families. There is a need for Bougainville to find a way to 



17 



address the crimes and abuses of the war before healing can begin. Ongoing Human Rights Abuses 
will continue unless our new generation post-conflict see that LIFE MATTERS to THE STATE. The 
'blanket amnesty' pronounced by the PNG Government in the Peace Agreement has given the 
impression to the general population that there is no consequence for abusing the rights of others. 
Post Conflict youth and young adults are taking advantage of this and need to see that the 
Government wants to find out where and how the victims are, who they are and that it matters what 
will be done for them and their communities. Without some form of Transitional Justice, there is a 
perception that anyone can do anything and get away with it. The amnesty period (from 1 st October 
1988 to 1 st July 1995) needs to be taken into account with full awareness and involvement of civil 
society and 'grassroots' consultations in designing a process that will work throughout Bougainville. 
Should the amnesty period still apply in fairness to the later years of mounting horrific abuses? 
Amnesty granted did nothing to stop abuses continuing on all sides of the conflict right up to signed 
Peace Agreements! However, to address these justice issues, we need find out exactly what 
Bougainville has to contend with. International mediation may well be necessary for impartiality to 
be applied to all parties. 

62. As there is insufficient medical facility for autopsy of most village based deaths, no medical 
certificate facilities or any formal recording of births and deaths in Bougainville, it is all too easy for 
individuals and disaffected groups to band together and commit atrocities. Without a death 
certificate stating cause of death, suspicions and imagined slights can condemn innocent parties. 
Specific cases of such executions abound from Lontis (North Buka) to Sorom (North Bougainville) to 
Koromira and Kokoda areas (Central Bougainville) and in Panguna a couple hung upside down and 
beaten were rescued and Martin Musingku imprisoned them in Arawa for safety reasons. 
Admissions of sorcery and abuse are often extracted under torture and fear of death thus abusing a 
person's right to life and to a fair trial and to the presumption of innocence until proven guilty. 

63. The Department of Community Development has been tasked with setting up a CIVIL 
REGISTRY office but there is no finance to employ staff and institutional capacity is lacking to run 
the office without initial training and international support/twinning arrangements with 
experienced nations. This is a basic frontline service to defend human rights and should be 
developed without delay! UNICEF was originally involved in the interests of providing birth 
certificates to children in protection of their right to life. There has been no progress since the office 
space was made available and the certificates are being damaged in poor storage by careless access 
of general public to the office. From interview with Mr Kuiai, who later became the 1 st Secretary to 
the President then Chief of Staff until July 2009, grave concern was expressed over the need for 
social responsibility to be seen as carrying consequences for actions. 'We are leaving out the 
children and the need to focus on prevention'. Mr Kuiai later became the CEO for Division of Peace 
and Reconciliation (June 2009-June 2010) and is currently the 1 st Secretary to the Minister for Peace 
and Reconciliation. His immediate concern is to teach Human Rights and Peace Education in 
Schools. It is a violation of the Rights of the Child to live in Peace, if we do not face up to our social 
responsibility and empower villages to uphold their Human Rights and live in Peaceful, Reconciled 
communities. So Transitional Justice must also involve the children and youth in awareness 
campaigns to break the cycle of violence. 

64. The youth of the crisis who missed out on education are now adults who want to act out 
what they witnessed as 'adult behaviour' from their parents and clan heroes and leaders. Even after 
attending human rights education workshops, we have witnessed youth resorting to violence in 
response to perceived wrongs. For example a youth leader in Hako attacked the Catholic Priest with 
a bush knife in anger at believing he had compromised the church with befriending a female 
politician. Many children of the crisis are now youth and have limited education with very selective 
few gaining opportunities to further their education. Many are becoming troubled teenagers who 
want to join in with the youth 'road culture' of drugs, alcohol abuse travelling the roads with boom 
boxes of alternate music and forming vigilante highway gangs. 

65. Present forms of post conflict trauma surface in police statistics. Domestic Violence, Gender 
Based Violence and Assaults, Rapes and Sexual Offences are unacceptably high. Women as well as 
youth are paying the price for the lack of Truth and Reconciliation mechanisms and Trauma 
Rehabilitation resources for the Bougainville population. Researcher, Janice Lewis, provided Police 
statistics for this report from 89 COEs (Council of Elder or Local Level Governments) for the months 



18 



of April, July and August 2010. Research was not included for May and June as these were ABG 
election and polling months and police were detailed to polling security so were unable to respond 
to community call outs in the usual way. Serving Bougainville's population of 200,000 is a Police 
Service of 500 being 175 BPS (Bougainville Police Service Officers, 11% women) and 330 CAPS 
(Community Auxiliary Police Service, part-time - 2 hours per day - 20% women). Their resources 
are inadequate and the maintenance of vehicles, lack of staff with drivers licences, lack of fuel to 
respond to call outs and inexperience (being very new, post war) to successfully respond, 
investigate and prosecute successful cases all place pressure on the general population to contain 
law and order problems, overlook abuses or dispense ready justice on site. Police are overburdened 
coping with current police call out cases and would have no way of coping with a back log of Human 
Rights abuses and crimes dating back to the war years. As it is, there is a serious backlog of cases to 
go before District and National Courts. 

66. Serious crimes are being addressed illegally in the Village Courts because research from the 

community reveals lack of respect for the integrity of the full time police service to respond to 
reported incidents. North Bougainville Police receives the most support and resources but is the 
slowest to respond. Community expectation is for a response in 24 hours but the longest waiting 
time in response noted in the survey was 'never'. Central Bougainville expects a Police Response 
from BPS within 1 week and this was the longest waiting time reported. South Bougainville 
community also expected a 1-week response to call out and their longest reported wait was 6 
months. Despite the lack of community reporting of incidents to the Police Service, statistics for 
April, July and August 2010 are for formal reports of 84 Sexual Offences, 261 Domestic Violence and 
Assault cases and 16 Child Abuse /Child welfare cases. The total numbers of crimes reported to 
Police in April were 615, in July x 793 and in August x 715. 



67. Background and context to RECOMMENDATION 6: Recommend assistance from UN 
WOMEN to assist ABG and the Minister for Women in promoting gender sensitive legislation 
in the Autonomous Bougainville Government incorporating UNSCR 1325. 

To give background support for this recommendation, it is possible to refer to 2011 International 
Women's Day consultation report held in Bougainville on 8 th March 2011 and was attended by 
various stakeholders and partners that included the Division of Community Development in the 
ABG, NGO's, churches, Media and the Haku Women's Collective under the umbrella organisation of 
the Bougainville Women's Federation. The women resolved to put pressure on the government to 
formulate gender responsive policies and laws, to make sure laws are implemented e.g. marital 
rape, to create no drop policies-gender based violence laws so prosecutions must proceed for GBV 
crimes even if the parties reconcile. 

68. Bougainville women are calling for the ABG to seek technical advice from UN Women and 
expertise in the formulation of these gender sensitive laws and policies and equal opportunities in 
leadership positions. These would need to protect women's rights to work and freedom to choose 
careers of their own preferences and not be forced by society into predetermined status and roles in 
village societies. 

69. Bougainville women have experienced discrimination at the hands of several Local Level 
Governments and Village Assemblies. Some traditions are not gender sensitive but attitudes taken 
from these are affecting contemporary governance decisions and exclusions. ABG must inform all 
levels of government that such actions are discriminating against women and they must be 
informed of CEDAW and the fact that Papua New Guinea has signed the international protocol of 
CEDAW. 

70. Bougainville Women's Federation (the umbrella group for all women of Bougainville and all 
organizations of women) from Village Assemblies to COEs to Districts, to Sub Regions. Yet to be 
formed is the overall Regional Executive Board. They are calling for UN expertise and technical 
assistance in the capacity building and resource management training of Bougainville women to 
enable them to serve their communities. 



19 



71 Bougainville women are also calling for UN Women to lobby the ABG to enact gender 

sensitive laws and policies that will protect women from gender based violence and to establish, 
maintain and fund holistic services for women affected by Gender Based Violence. 

72. Background and context to RECOMMENDATION 7: Forensic Identification of Human 
remains in Graves and Mass Grave Sites in Bougainville 

There are issues to take into account when identifying and exhuming bodies in Bougainville. 
Extended families are as intimately involved as direct relatives as indigenous tribes and clans 
ascribe significance to every member of their genealogy. This kinship affects ownership and rights 
to land. It is important to be buried in the correct location on your land as a form of 'land title'. 
Burial of people killed on land belonging to others may, in some cases, carry landownership issues. 
In South and Central Bougainville, it is customary for land ownership and entitlement to land 
defiled by such an act to change hands and belong to the family of the victim. Traditionally this 
applies if the person was killed in defence of that land on the landowner's behalf. Now this tradition 
has been developed to apply also for 'fighting for / or dying for Bougainville'. A case in point, in 
November 2010 in Siwaii, land ownership of a valley where a woman was killed during the war has 
exchanged hands. Her husband's relatives were responsible for her death and so the land has been 
given to the dead women's relatives. 

73. Bougainville has only one small morgue for the entire population of 200,000. The exercise 
of exhuming and identifying bodies and returning them to correct family members would require 
independent logistics and resources and a mobile set up that could travel to proximity of sites 
throughout Bougainville, Consultation with PNG and ABG authorities would be helpful in 
ascertaining the 



CONCLUSION 

74 The perception of the public is that Peace and Security has improved in Bougainville over 
the last five years, however progress has been slow. Communities still feel threatened by incidents 
of violent crime; guns are still present among the population and people want the Government to 
target the underlying causes of crime and insecurity if peace and security are to continue to 
improve. Measures suggested include: 

75 Completing the Peace Process by Peaceful means with intervention in the remaining 
isolated areas of Konnou in South Bougainville. Strategies to assist this process could include 
international presence to strengthen and validate women's efforts in peacemaking. South 
Bougainville is a male dominated culture and has an ongoing culture of violence and generational 
family disputes that could benefit from international counselling and intervention expertise on 
ways to dismantle the longstanding hostility. 

76. Weapons disposal program to be reactivated and, as a start, create strategies that will assist 
the process such as improving the performance of the police and training them to cope with armed 
confrontations, enforce gun registration and monitoring of possession, provide work for the 
unemployed who are tempted to become mercenaries in security firms, addressing substance abuse 
and provide counselling services for those suffering from post-conflict trauma. 

77. Bougainville, Papua New Guinea and the entire international community has no way of 
assessing the needs of Bougainville without a serious and concerted attempt to come to terms with 
the real scale of abuses, death, suffering, disability, need for social services and 
assistance/intervention. Any attempt to meet these needs by educated guesswork is ad hoc and 
inadequate. Therefore we call upon international UN bodies with expertise, training and data base 
experience to assist Bougainville to assess the scale, identify cases and collate all research in helpful 
ways that will be available to planning and all service provides (both government and non 
government) A database of war related deaths and orphaned children, medical blockade related 
deaths and or disability, victims of torture and resultant disabilities, victims of rape and children of 
rape, displaced persons, and widows and separated families will affirm the peace process by 
searching out such people who will be identified for the provision of services; assist them to be 



20 



clients for trauma counselling and rehabilitation, make it possible to plan reparation and or provide 
services and aid/equipment/rehabilitation/alternative skills training to them as required. 

78. The Reconciliation process has stalled and requires database collation, review, analyses 

assessment and improvement with a view to continue. The considered view of Bougainville Human 
Rights Defenders is that the Reconciliation Process must also address justice issues with truth 
telling and inclusions of victims accounts and validation, acknowledgement of suffering and loss to 
assist victims to feel valued and known to the state. A database of Reconciliations will affirm the 
peace process, and identify perpetrators and victims and affected communities. Collectively and 
individually people will be able to access Reconciliation Process and to have their restorations and 
find closure to enmity and hatred, forgiveness and cleansing and healing,; assist them to be 
identified for trauma counselling and rehabilitation, make it possible to plan reparation and or 
provide services as this data base can cross reference the database of victims. 

79 A Transitional Justice mechanism is needed to address justice issues and break the cycle of 

violence that is escalating in Bougainville. Institutional capacity in Bougainville to deal with crimes 
and violations of the past conflict is non-existent. Whether this mechanism takes the form of a 
Human Rights Commission, some form of a Truth and Reconciliation Commission, an Ombudsman 
Commission, capacity building of the present judicial system, it must incorporate a means of 
ensuring community safety and security and the message that crime is not acceptable. It must also 
provide counselling and rehabilitation processes for all parties. 

80. The role of women is critical to peace and security in Bougainville and their safety and 
protection must be guaranteed. Gender Based Violence and Gender equality issues must be 
addressed through ABG legislation with the expert drafting assistance of UN Women and 
international community expertise in CEDAW and UNSCR 1325. 

81. Bougainvilleans require expert forensic assistance in exhuming, identifying and reclaiming 
their loved ones remains from known burial sites. This is unfinished business on the road to healing, 
forgiveness, rehabilitation and reconstruction of whole communities. Large and public domains 
remain off limits until the sites can be cleared and cleansed. Bougainville does not have the capacity 
to do this without international support. Papua New Guinea may also have fallen soldiers bodies to 
reclaim and restore to grieving relatives. True Reconciliation between Bougainville and Papua New 
Guinea Defence Forces has not yet taken place. There needs to be awareness of this and strategies of 
assisting all parties in undertaking the exercise. 

82. No one has counted the cost of war and its consequences in Bougainville. Everyone is 
making educated guesses and quoting experts who have quoted other experts and media sources. It 
is not possible to gain the confidence of outside investment and international help for 
reconstruction without clear data to substantiate the reconstruction requirements. Well over a 
thousand Bougainvilleans were killed directly in the fighting and a larger unknown number died as 
a result of being cut off from medicines, medical care and their gardens - in many cases as a result of 
intentional acts of war such as the blockade. The Minister for Health in the Bougainville Interim 
Government Bishop John Zale (deceased) had a list of 10,000 names of the dead in 1993, halfway 
through the war. Thousands of women and girls were raped and many single mothers struggle to 
raise children born into a culture of war. More than one-third of the population lost their homes. A 
generation of children missed out on basic education and the second generation remain locked out 
of further education with lack of infrastructure and resources. Time is running out for them to grow 
into a culture of peace if we do not take heed of the signs and ACT NOW. 

83. Economic development is the catchcry but how can one be gainfully employed and take up 
opportunities for the future with blood, trauma, violence in our wake and ongoing gender based 
violence; because the trauma is taken home and enacted in domestic violence on loved ones in 
frustration. All aspects of the export/import economy collapsed and reconstruction is taking far too 
long. Bougainville has come out of conflict utterly devastated. Financially struggling and 
dysfunctional in accountability and acquittals, Bougainville systems are strained due to lack of 
training in financial management and poor management of money that slides easily into 
'corruption'. . The cost of a no-trust banking system in terms of stunted long-term development will 
be very high, especially if ratings agencies have to assess the financial system of an independent 



21 



Bougainville and therefore the price it will have to pay for money it borrows.' The Panguna Old and 
New Landowner organisations continue to differ in their opinions and conditions to impose over 
the question of reopening the Copper Mine. If this issue continues to be pursued by the ABG for 
economic recovery reasons in isolation to the Human Rights situation, the war could re erupt. 

With the highest respect for our leaders and those elected to govern, we request assistance for and 
from them on behalf of all our people. We trust this civil society report will be well received by the 
OHRCHR and our governments for positive action. Where national resources and expertise are 
lacking, we ask the United Nations to assess Bougainville's needs during this Universal Periodic 
Review with a view to assisting our sovereign nation with the expertise available from the United 
Nations, neighbouring nations and international bodies. 

ANNEXES